Defamation is the oral or written communication of a false statement about another that unjustly harms their reputation and usually constitutes a tort or crime. In several countries, a true statement can also be considered defamation.
In an era where often more questions arise than answers, the public is eager to read, share and explore everyone’s views on a particular topic.
Whether you are journalists or reporters providing professional coverage, business owners responsible for your employees’ conduct, family members responsible for your children or dependants’ actions, we all need some guidance and practical answers, in order to be aware of the legal implications of how we use our social media.
Whilst naturally we are all expressing and discussing our thoughts on the impact of COVID-19, it is important to be aware of the potential legal implications that the dissemination of information and expressions of opinion or fact could have in the United Arab Emirates.
Within the contents of this short article, we will outline the key points which individuals should be aware of before submitting and/or disseminating information, pictures, posts or any audio, audio-visual or written material regarding COVID-19 into the public domain. The points covered by this article are applicable to individuals, , patients, advice, corporations or any other form of information. The two major risks can be broadly summarised as an i) Invasion of Privacy and ii) Defamation.
Privacy. The right to a private and dignified family life is considered inherent in the United Arab Emirates and is appropriately safeguarded by numerous applicable laws and regulations. The disclosure of information or secrets relating to someone’s private or family’s life will attract liability under the Penal Code, the Cyber Crimes Law as well as laws related to media and publications in United Arab Emirates, if no prior consent is obtained from the individual.
This can include an image, photo, short videos or any materials that expose individual to the public without their consent, even for the purpose of public awareness.
To put this into the context of COVID-19, to expose an individual as exhibiting symptoms or as having the virus is likely to be interpreted as an invasion of an individual’s right to a private life. Furthermore, to take a picture of another person in a public place and ‘disseminate it’ by publishing it online could also be interpreted as an invasion of privacy.
The United Arab Emirates Criminal Court of Cassation issued a binding court judgement in relation to privacy laws in 2016, where it affirmed the imposition of serious sanctions against all entities involved in publishing content that violates the privacy of individuals. The individuals, in this case, were walking in public areas yet, they were filmed without their consent and this subsequently raised a claim for the invasion of privacy. The sanctions imposed by the Court of Cassation as a result of this invasion of a right to a private life included fines and deportation from United Arab Emirates territory.
The fundamental point is that patients, children, names, images, medical situations or related data, can all be classified as private information, which is exclusive owned by the individual concerned The disclosure of this information, in any form, should be carefully reviewed and assessed, in order to mitigate any potential risk.
It is important that Employers or Individuals with dependants, raise awareness on the implications of reporting on social media platforms in respect of the applicable laws to ensure no violation, even if unintentional, occurs. Ignorance of the law or lack of intention to violate another’s right to privacy is not an excuse. It should be noted that simply re-sharing what someone else has shared or published will not exempt an individual or entity from liability.
We have observed a high level of professionalism and adherence with the applicable laws and the third parties rights of media service providers, including TV channels, radio stations, online newspapers and other mediums. This is apparent from all the reports and audio-visual content that we are receiving in relation to COVID-19. We have also witnessed reliable content on the topic that provides sufficient information to public and corroborates with official sources.
Defamation. Defamatory or libellous posts on social media could result in defamation claims under the applicable laws in the United Arab Emirates. Whilst the creation and dissemination of parodic posts and content is a common occurrence in the United Kingdom and Europe, it is important to be aware that parody is not an available defence under United Arab Emirates Law. Instead, it is more likely that a parody may be seen as an attempt to humiliate an individual or an entity and to harm their reputation, no matter how ridiculous the parody is.
More recently, an exception to this rule was passed in the United Arab Emirates in DIFC Intellectual Property Law number 4 of 2019, in which it is considered that a registered Trademark, or a well-known Trademark, is not infringed in the DIFC if it is used in news reporting, news commentary or parody. However, this exception is specifically limited to DIFC and in relation to trademarks. This shows a willingness for parodic content to be recognised in the future, but for now, the public should be aware that parodic content, could be pursued by the concerned individuals and/or entities in UAE under the applicable defamation laws.
To put this into context, any posts relating to patients, medical staff members, law enforcement agencies or the public reacting to incidents of public interest can be subject to legal liability. Defamation criminal liability is pursuable within a strict time bar from publishing defamatory content. However, civil liability and invasion of privacy criminal claims can be longer than defamation offenses.
It is worth reminding everyone that in accordance with articles 372 and 373 of United Arab Emirates Federal Law No. 3 of 1987 in the United Arab Emirates, a defamatory statement is one that exposes a person to public hatred or contempt, even if the statement is true and correct. This means that a person is potentially exposed to a claim for defamation by publishing or disseminating any negative news about an individual or an entity. If the defamatory statement is made against a public officer or governmental entity, the imposed sanction could be significantly worse.
We should all be aware that the protection of privacy, for the data of patients, defamation, cyber-crimes and all other related legal provisions in the United Arab Emirates are going to be likely reviewed and subject to enforcement proceedings should any violations be revealed. The priority now is for public safety but authorities and concerned individuals will be monitoring and documenting posted content that may be revisited in the future to explore any legal liabilities.
On a final note, social media platforms are extremely beneficial to the general public as they enable the transmission of awareness, encourage the freedom of speech and facilitate communication on an international basis, at a time where countries are shutting their borders and encouraging people to isolate. For example, the level of awareness that people gained on COVID-19 in such a short period is unprecedented. However, users should be aware that social media platforms are not private and the misuse of such platforms by sharing any content, statement or image that they come across, is subject to appropriate sanctions.
Freedom of speech is granted and protected so long as it is in compliance with local regulations and public orders.