City law firm RPC comments on Saracens fine

During November, the Premiership Rugby fined UK Rugby champions Saracens with a 35 point deduction and £5.36 million for breaching salary cap rules.

Commenting on the Premiership Rugby’s decision and its wider impact on the sports industry, Jeremy Drew, Head of the Commercial Practice at the City law firm RPC said:

“The biggest surprise from a legal perspective is the severity of the sanction – simply because it is unprecedented for the Premiership. Saracens will no doubt have technical arguments around possible precedents for co-investments in relation to the cap, but as is the case with rules in a number of sports, the regulations are purposefully written to preserve the spirit of the rules not just the letter. A good example is Leeds United’s sanction for Spygate which focussed on a breach of the duty to act in good faith to other clubs, rather than an express obligation not to spy.

The case is a timely reminder that the objectives of the regulations are of critical importance, as is clear by the express obligation on the Salary Cap Manager to notify Premiership Rugby of any potential loopholes / lacunae and the clear references to the general principles of the regulations.

The big hurdle for the club now is its challenge of the Disciplinary Panel’s decision which will not take place as an appeal, but will challenge the decision in a form consistent with a Judicial Review (as is standard in many sports related arbitrations). Consequently the bar that Saracens has to reach to overturn the decision is a challenging one.”

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Potential economic impact of the Rugby World Cup

Building on previous studies for the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2003 in Australia, RWC 2007 in France and an advance study for RWC 2011 in New Zealand, we used our major event economic impact methodology to estimate the potential impact of a future RWC on a set of potential Host Nations.

Our report provided a thorough analysis of the possible economic gains a future RWC could lead to in various Host Nations. It outlined the generic economic benefits to a country of hosting a major event such as this and provided contextual data for the impact associated with other similar international sports events.

Using our tried and testing methodology for assessing the potential impact of major sports events, we estimated the direct and indirect economic impact of a RWC on the major rugby regions by building a model for each country.

For each region (including Western Europe, SANZAR, and for developing rugby nations) we also identified regional factors that could affect the level of economic impact. Our analysis incorporated the possible contribution of a Host Country’s government via taxation.

The report continues to provide important support to Host Unions and Governments when deciding whether to bid for future RWCs.

“Deloitte’s Rugby World Cup economic impact study was excellent. Deloitte have a real insight into major events and showed rigour in assessing the economic impact that the Rugby World Cup has on host nations.~ Robert Brophy, Head of Finance, World Rugby


Is there a link between playing sports and success in business?

What do a disproportionate number of CEOs have in common? They played sports when they were younger.

Former Whole Foods CEO Walter Robb was the captain of the Stanford Soccer Team. Bank of America CEO Brian Moynihan played rugby at Brown. Even Mark Zuckerberg was a high school fencing star.

But according to a series of Ernst & Young studies, it is even more common for female executives to have played a sport.

Ernst & Young surveyed 821 high-level executives and found that a whopping 90% of women played sports. Among women currently holding a C-suite position, this proportion rose to 96%.

In high school, Meg Whitman, CEO of Hewlett-Packard, was the captain of the swim team and also played varsity lacrosse, tennis and basketball. At Princeton University she played NCAA squash and lacrosse. In her book “The Power of Many,” Whitman writes: “I liked team sports the best. When I’m pulling a business team together, I still use those basketball aphorisms I learned as a young person: ‘Let’s pass the ball around a little before game time.’ ‘Do we need man-to-man or zone defense?'”

There are a few reasons why playing sports may boost your odds of business success.

Athletics builds character

Sports keep you physically and mentally healthy, teach you important relationship skills and forge determination. These benefits often spill over into the business world.

Sporting organisations help with networking

The NCAA has a robust career center. Wall Street’s “Lacrosse Mafia” recruits All-American players at staggering rates. You can even scroll through the 42 best lacrosse players on Wall Street.

Northwestern sociologist Lauren Rivera notes that hiring rates increase the most among candidates who played “sports that have a strong presence at Ivy League schools as well as pay-to-play club sports, such as lacrosse, field hockey, tennis, squash and crew.”

Sports often reflect privilege

It may not be that playing sports causes someone to become more of a leader; instead, the truth may be that people who are already competitive and have leadership potential are drawn to sports as kids. They and their families are also often more likely to be affluent, since participation on so many teams requires significant cash outlays.

Sports consume time, energy and resources that many families cannot spare. People who are well-off are more likely to play sports, as well as become CEOs. If you can afford fencing lessons, your child’s odds of becoming a CEO are already quite good.

But why are women in the C-suite more likely to have played sports than their male counterparts?

It might be that sports encourage women to break gender norms, something that is often required for them to reach executive positions in the business world. Sports teach young women and girls skills beyond teamwork and dedication. Learning to be aggressive, competitive and tough may make them the kind of employees eager to take on more responsibility and seek promotions.

It could also be that the same families that encourage girls to be athletes encourage women to be competitive and successful at work and at everything they do.

Whatever the reason, it is becoming more and more apparent that starting on the court or field may be the best path to the boardroom, especially for women.

Multisport PHOTO

14 Pro Athletes Turned Successful Entrepreneurs

In today’s sports-crazed world, athletes like Lebron James and Tony Hawk have quickly become household names. But it’s not just their sport that’s making them famous.

Athletes are becoming known for their entrepreneurship and savvy business deals—earning more off the playing field than on. From personalized apparel to multimillion dollar investment companies, see why these athletes truly “score” in the business world.

14. Oscar De La Hoya

Sports: By age 28, boxing’s “Golden Boy” Oscar De La Hoya had won five titles in varying weight classes, making him the youngest boxer ever to win five world titles. He has a career total of 10 championship belts and was a 1992 Olympic gold medal winner. He has generated $612 million in revenue for his 18 pay-per-view fights.

Business: De La Hoya is the top pay-per-view earner in ring history, bringing in more than $600 million. In 2000, he released Grammy-nominated music album “Oscar” in both English and Spanish.

De La Hoya’s management company, Golden Boy Promotions, consists of more than 40 fighters and numerous businesses, generating more than $100 million annually. De La Hoya personally owns more than 50 percent of the company.

13. Michael Jordan

Sports: Arguably the best basketball player known to the game, Michael Jordan changed the way basketball is viewed. He played for the Chicago Bulls and later for the Washington Wizards, totaling more than $90 million in earnings as a player salary.

Business: Currently, he owns the Charlotte Bobcats (which he bought for roughly $175 million) and is the face of Nike’s Air Jordan sneakers. Other endorsements include Gatorade, Wheaties, McDonald’s, Coca-Cola, Chevrolet, Rayovac and Hanes. His estimated worth was more than $500 million before his divorce in 2006.

12. Venus Williams

Sports: Currently ranked No. 3 in the world in singles and No. 2 in doubles, Venus Williams is a professional tennis player who has redefined women’s tennis. She pulled in $15.5 million from playing this year, according to Forbes.

Business: Williams is currently CEO of her interior design firm “V Starr Interiors”. She also launched her own fashion line in 2007. She is part owner of the Miami Dolphins with sister Serena. In 2001, she signed a five-year endorsement contract with Reebok International for $40 million. Her new book “Come to Win” was No. 5 on the New York Times Best Seller list. She was ranked number 83 on Forbes’ 2010 Celebrity Top 100 list.

11. Tony Hawk

Sports: Sponsored by the age of 12 and pro at 14, Tony Hawk changed the face of the skateboarding world. Over the next 17 years, he entered more than 100 pro contests, winning 73 of them and placing second in 19. In 1999, Tony Hawk landed the first-ever “900” at the X games—two and a half spins mid air! In total, Hawk invented more than 80 tricks.

Business: Hawk is the owner of Birdhouse, one of the largest skateboarding companies in the world, and he started his own clothing line, aptly named “Hawk Clothing.” He has deals with Activision, Six Flags, Kohl’s, Infospace, Adio shoes, Jeep and Sirius Satellite Radio.

In conjunction with Activision, Hawk created Tony Hawk’s Pro Skater Video game in 1999, which quickly became a best seller, now making him the No. 1 action-sports video game franchise. Tony continues to release video games for all gaming systems. He also released an autobiography, which was a New York Times bestseller. Hawk grossed $12 million in 2008 alone, according to Forbes.

10. John Elway

Sports: Although originally drafted to the Baltimore Colts, John Elway played for the Denver Broncos. His initial contract with the Broncos was for a 6 year, $12.7 million contract. He is best known for his 15-play, 98-yard offensive series in the AFC Championship game, aptly known as “The Drive.” He helped lead the Broncos to five Super Bowl appearances and two wins.

Business: Since retirement, he has owned several businesses and writes an NFL blog. He also founded The Elway Foundation, a non-profit organization for the prevention of child abuse. He is also the owner of two restaurants and once owned five car dealerships in the Denver area. He sold them to AutoNation in 1997 for $82.5 million. He is still in the car dealership business.

9. LeBron James

Sports: Drafted directly out of high school to the Cleveland Cavaliers, LeBron James is said to show talent on the same level as Michael Jordan. Earning $19 million in his first 4 years with the Cavs, James recently signed with the Miami Heat for a little less than $16 million.

Business: Before James even signed with the Cavs, Nike signed him to a seven year, $90 million contract. When Nike released his first shoe, Air Zoom Generation, it sold 72,000 pairs at $110 in its first month.

He also owns his own marketing agency, known as LRMR, which secured endorsements with Nike, Sprite, Glacéau, Bubblicious, and Upper Deck. In 2010 alone, James totaled $30 million in endorsements.

8. George Foreman

Sports: This heavyweight champion took the boxing world by storm, with his most notable fight “Rumble in the Jungle” against Muhammad Ali for the world heavyweight title in Zaire, Africa. Although he lost the fight, he pulled in more than $5 million for the fight alone. He won the gold medal in the 1968 Olympic Games for the United States. He was undefeated in 40 straight fights.

Business: Over 100 million George Foreman Grills have been sold worldwide. Foreman sold the marketing rights to his grills in 1999 for $137 million—more than what he ever made in his career as a boxer. His other business ventures include a clothing line and a cleaning product line.

7. Dave Bing

Sports: This seven-time all-star is named one of the NBA’s 50 greatest players. Starting out with the Detroit Pistons, over nine seasons Bing negotiated his contract from $15,000 up to $450,000.

Later, he played two seasons for the Washington Bullets and ended his basketball career as a Boston Celtic. He was the sixth rookie in NBA history to top 1,600 points and held a record of 18,372 points for his career total.

Business: In 1980, Bing launched Big Steel in Detroit. Within a decade, his steel mill was pulling in $61 million in annual sales, making Big Steel the 10th largest African American-owned industrial company in the nation. He later founded Superb Manufacturing, a $28 million-per-year metal stamping company. As chairman of Bing Group, an automotive supplier, he has sales of over $200 million.

6. Roger Staubach

Sports: Staubach was the quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys from 1969 to 1979. In his last year playing, he had an 83.4 passing rating, which was the best mark by an NFL passer at that time. He was an all-NFC choice five times and was selected to play in six Pro Bowls.

Business: In 1997, Staubach founded real estate firm the Staubach Company. He has served as CEO since 1982. The firm had 60 offices in the US, Canada and Mexico, until recently bought by Jones Lang Lasalle for $613 million.

5. Vinnie Johnson

Sports: Seen as one of the greatest “sixth men” in basketball history, Vinnie Johnson helped lead the Detroit Pistons to numerous NBA victories. He is best known for sinking the winning shot in the 1990 NBA finals against Portland with 00.7 seconds left in the game. That same year, he held out on resigning his contract until he signed for $3.2 million in a two year agreement.

Business: After retirement, Johnson founded Piston Automotive. The company now has more than 200 employees and sales of over $85 million.

4. Cal Ripken Jr

Sports: This Baltimore Oriole shortstop is best known for breaking Lou Gehrig’s record of consecutive games played—totaling 2,632 games. He is one of eight players in history to achieve 400 home runs and 3,000 hits. In 1992, he signed a five-year, $30.5 million contract to continue playing for the Orioles.

Business: As chairman and CEO of Ripken Baseball, Inc., Ripken helped build a baseball complex in his hometown of Aberdeen, Maryland. He owns the Augusta GreenJackets (the Class A affiliate of the San Francisco Giants) and the Charlotte Stone Crabs (the class A affiliate of the Tampa Bay Rays). A best-selling author, Ripken also has been the spokesperson for Energizer, Holiday Inn, Rinnai and State Farm Insurance.

3. Chris Webber

Sports: As a member of the Golden State Warriors, Chris Webber became the first NBA rookie to score more than 1,000 points, 500 rebounds, 250 assists, 150 blocks and 75 steals. He is a five-time NBA All Star.

Webber remains the only sixth player in history to average more than 20 points, 9 rebounds, and 4 assists per game. When he signed his contract again with the Sacramento Kings in for $123 million in 2001, his contract made him the second highest paid player in NBA history.

Business: Webber is active in investment companies representing basketball and football players, real estate and film projects. He had endorsement deals with Coca-Cola, EA Sports, Sony Playstation, ESPN the Magazine, Fila, Nike, Pepsi, Carl’s Jr., THQ Wireless and New Era.

He currently owns a real estate development company, Maktub LLC, which primarily focuses on redevelopment efforts in Chicago. He also opened his own restaurant in Sacramento, Calif., aptly named Center Court with C-Webb. He is also a music producer and is featured on numerous hip hop tracks.

2. Wayne Gretzky

Sports: Considered one of the greatest hockey players ever, Wayne Gretzky holds or shares 61 NHL records—40 for the regular season, 15 for the Stanley Cup playoffs and six for the NHL all star game. He was paid more than $40 million from 1989 to 1999.

Business: Gretzky bought the Hull Olympiques of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League for $175,000 CA, and sold it seven years later for $550,000 CA. In 1992, Gretzky partnered with Bruce McNall in an investment to buy a rare Honus Wagner T206 cigarette card for $500,000 US. It most recently sold for $2.8 million US. He also owns his own restaurant, aptly named Wayne Gretzky’s Restaurant, as well as his own winery. Forbes estimates he earned $93.8 mil between 1990 and 1998.

1. Magic Johnson

Sports: At 6-feet-9-inches, Earvin “Magic” Johnson was the tallest point guard in league history. His 13-year NBA career was spent entirely with the L.A. Lakers. In 1984, Johnson signed a 25-year, $25 million contract with the L.A. Lakers.

Business: Magic runs Magic Enterprises, a chain of movie theaters. The Magic Johnson Foundation has awarded more than $1.1 million to community organizations that focus on HIV/AIDS prevention. He is also known for bringing big business to urban commercial areas. He has partnerships with Starbucks, T.G.I. Fridays and AMC Theatres.


Why do rugby players make such good business people?

Former New Zealand All-Black Sean Fitzpatrick and ex-England rugby coach Sir Clive Woodward explain why rugby and business go so well together.

George Gregan, Australia’s talismanic former scrum half, is one of the country’s most successful rugby union players. His international career spanned 13 years and saw him win 139 caps. Only two people have represented their countries more in the history of rugby – New Zealand’s Richie McCaw and Ireland’s Brian O’Driscoll.

Yet just five years into his international career and at the peak of his powers – the same year, in fact, that Australia won the Rugby World Cup – Gregan started his own business: GG’s Espresso shop, based in Sydney’s bustling business district.

To a football fan this might sound like an odd move, a bit like David Beckham drawing up a business plan for a greasy spoon café. But there lies, in a nutshell, one of the major differences between a game in which you throw the ball and one in which you kick it.

Rugby union went professional in 1995, and although the amount of money pumped into the sport has steadily increased, players’ wages are still small compared to that of football.

All Black Dan Carter will become rugby’s highest-paid player after the World Cup, yet even on his new wages it would take him more than 20 years to amass the annual salary of Cristiano Ronaldo. Ronaldo also enjoys bonuses and endorsements that take his earnings beyond £50 million a year – exactly 100 times more than the fourth highest-paid rugby player, Sam Burgess.

Rugby’s historical frugality is a major reason for its close and practical ties to business, says Sean Fitzpatrick, who recently spoke at Grant Thornton’s Inspiring Business event, part of a series dedicated to stimulating ideas among business audiences.

Sean Fitzpatrick

  • New Zealand All Black: 1986-1997
  • Captain: 51 times
  • World Cup winner: 1987
  • Front Row Group director: 2010

Sean is a World Cup-winning All Black with 92 caps to his name, having captained the side a one-time record of 51 times, a figure only recently bettered by Richie McCaw.

“Unlike footballers, most rugby players will have worked. We know that when we finish, we won’t have enough money to lie on the beach,” he explains during an interview with Strategies for growth ahead of his presentation. “A rugby player has to work with people and adapt to different situations; footballers don’t learn those skills because they don’t have to.”

It’s a fact drawn out in the experience of Sir Clive Woodward, the former England coach who steered the team to the 2003 Rugby World Cup title. During the early 1980s he combined his time working as an executive for the technology company Xerox with playing rugby 21 times for England.

Sir Clive Woodward

  • England coach: 1997-2004
  • Rugby World Cup winner: 2003
  • Southampton FC: 2005
  • British Olympic Association director: 2006-2012

“From a coaching point of view the business experience has been fantastic; as a player it effectively got in the way because it encroached on training time,” says Sir Clive, who delivered a presentation on world-class performance at Grant Thornton’s Inspiring Business event.

“When I became a coach all the lessons I learned in business became priceless. When I coached England it certainly helped that the players knew I had been in their shoes and had played for my country, but the biggest thing that helped me was 18 years in business,” he adds, referring not only to his days as a salesman and team leader with Xerox but also his stewardship of a small business that at one time employed nine people.

Coaching a team and heading up a business require the same leadership traits, according to Sir Clive. The key is not the team, but the dynamics between the individuals within it.

“Sometimes you can go over the top on ‘the team’. We lost the World Cup in 1999, and we had many of the same players and the same coach as we did in 2003. We were a lot better but fundamentally we were the same people.

“Anyone who plays rugby is likely to be pretty motivated. The secret to a great team is allowing those talented individuals to really flourish in a collaborative environment. You cater to every different personality because everyone is different.”

For Sean, culture is the most important ingredient in a winning formula. It’s no coincidence, he says, that the All Blacks have experienced sustained international success over the course of 100 years, despite the country having a population of just 4.6 million.

“They say that being captain of the All Blacks is more important than being the prime minister. It’s a huge responsibility and it takes three or four years to get used to it. It is the fear of failure but as you get older you learn to live with the fear. I loved being an All Black but the pressure was immense,” says Sean.

“The culture is the most important thing in a business, too – and it comes from the top. How you act towards people defines how they act towards each other. Make people want to work with you. Respect needs to happen up and down the organisation.”

The relationship between business and rugby is born of necessity, but the two are not uncomfortable bedfellows. Former players regularly make a smooth transition to employment or enterprise and thrive in a competitive environment that is different but the same.

George Gregan is just one example of this. His coffee shop now has 16 outlets. At the last count it had a turnover of £5 million and employs nearly 280 people.

“In sport you need drive and determination, and you have to work hard,” says Sir Clive. “When players enter the business world they tend to take those traits with them and they tend to be successful.

“It’s a way of getting over the disappointment of not playing any more. Gregan is a good example of someone who has channelled that and got the job done.”