A Complete Guide: GDPR Compliance For Google Analytics

With the size of Google, it seems illogical that Google Analytics isn’t actually GDPR compliant by default. While this is an interesting fact, it doesn’t change the way that small and medium businesses need to comply with regulations. 

However, Google fixed this by implementing what’s called a “consent mode.” It’s up to every business to research GDPR and similar documents individually and understand their responsibilities. The seriousness of GDPR can be easily seen through the fact that fines exceeded billions of dollars in 2021. 

The resources that give you exact information are rare, but this article aims to arm you with all you need as a business owner. 

Google Analytics Explained

One of the most helpful tools that you can use as a website owner is Google Analytics. This is a software made by Google that allows you to get insights into various metrics of your website. Starting from the most basic metrics such as traffic, clicks, and ranking up to more advanced data. 

The data collected can then be used to make better business decisions or adjustments to your website. Many larger companies have data scientists who turn these numbers into graphs and charts, allowing for a better understanding of the metrics. 

From a technical perspective, Google Analytics achieves these through JavaScript, which is running on your website. On the user’s side, their data is collected via cookies that harvest various types of data, which can range from the most basic data, such as time spent on a page, up to sensitive personal information.  

Because GDPR requires companies to ask for explicit permission for any type of tracking to be applied, Google Analytics isn’t compliant by default. This can be quite problematic depending on the size of your company and your business goals. 

Many European countries such as Austria, France, Italy, and others recognized this problem and made actionable steps to prevent this. 

However, Google realized the importance of GDPR and other regulations and made some adjustments that can make Google Analytics compliant. 

Google consent mode

To ensure that no information can be tracked by a single user, websites that implement Google’s consent mode can allow their users to customize the cookies they’re allowing. This can mean that each user can select all or only a few types of cookies.

On the other hand, they can reject all cookies and accept only those that are strictly necessary.  With the Google Analytics consent mode, companies can continue gathering the data in a way that’s compliant and transparent. 

From the technical aspect, Google tags are loaded before the cookie consent banner, allowing the Google Consent mode to adjust tags according to the user’s choice. The consent mode can be adjusted by third-party consent management platforms or via Google Tag Manager. 

However, don’t worry about switching to consent mode. It’s compatible with many different services. Google consent mode supports: 

  • Floodlight
  • Google Analytics
  • Google Analytics 4
  • Conversion Linker
  • Google Ads (Google Ads Conversion Tracking and Remarketing)

Although being compliant with GDPR is a requirement, adequate implementation of these principles can bring you a competitive advantage. A consent manager is also a part of the user experience, which can help you make this part of someone’s experience more enjoyable.  

Overall, you’re going to be able to gather information that you can later use for marketing operations without worrying about fines or other problems. Furthermore, it’s unlikely that these regulations will ever start becoming less strict; it’s actually quite the opposite. The sooner you embrace compliant processes, the more advantages you can have in the long run. 

End-user consent

When you’re obtaining user consent, you need to achieve that in a manner that’s understandable and straightforward. If you’re running a website for a specific country or a region, use the local language, if the website is in English, use simple language. 

Consent must be given explicitly, and no data should be tracked before the users give you permission. Furthermore, the users must be allowed to withdraw their consent whenever they like. Even if the users don’t withdraw their consent, the cookies should have a deadline.

Renewal of consent needs to happen periodically, based on data protection guidelines. The complexity of compliance and data gathering should encourage you to pay more attention to your cybersecurity protocols.

Information about consent, data that are gathered, and legal documentation that the consent is obtained need to be stored securely. In case of a data breach where a wrongdoer gets access to this information, your company will be held accountable. 

IP Anonymization

As the name suggests, an internet address (IP) is the internet equivalent of our home address. It can play a crucial role in getting sensitive information about an individual, thus why it’s considered personal data in GDPR.

By default, IP isn’t included in Google Analytics reports, yet they are sometimes used to provide geolocation data. An important advice for compliance is to avoid collecting data that you don’t need. 

This ensures that you’re a smaller target for hackers and wrongdoers, and you won’t have to commit as much resources. Turning on IP anonymization prevents gathering such identifiable data of your users. 

Detailed privacy and cookie policy

The cookie banner will be one of the first visual elements that your users will encounter when visiting a website. They don’t have all the information about your policies. The encouraged simplicity of this element also prevents it from providing the user with all the necessary information.

A separate page needs to be created that explains your privacy policy and how cookies are used. The reasons why you’re gathering cookies and how you’re using them should be explained in your privacy policy.

Disclosing information about how your business is earning money is also considered an important way of showing transparency. On the user’s side, this page should also help them with understanding how to customize their cookies and opt in and out of them. 

Consequences of failing to comply

When we’re talking about compliance, it’s often the consequences that businesses fear. However, they should introduce compliance based on values and other benefits rather than the fear of consequences. 

Nobody likes it when someone stuffs their nose in our business. When we’re talking about internet surfing, many companies never thought that exploiting personal data must be stopped. Being transparent and open with your users and customers, unfortunately, must be enforced.

The consequences of failing to comply with GDPR and other international regulations can be quite severe. Companies can suffer financial penalties, with the maximum fine going up to a staggering 20$ million.

These fines alone can bankrupt a business, but the consequences of being non-compliant don’t end here. Nobody wants to use services or buy products from businesses that are known for committing worrying acts.

Whether a business had a data breach or someone from the company made decisions that led to failure to non-compliance, this will lead to a significant loss of trust among the customers.  

Individuals who feel like they aren’t satisfied with the repercussions that the company suffered can start their own legal actions against it. Lawsuits can lead to additional problems for the company. 

Just like customers, your partners or clients can stop any collaborations. This can be because you have lowered profits or traffic or because they don’t want to be associated with such companies. The loss in terms of business opportunities can be immense in the long run, leading to stagnation or even bankruptcy.

GDPR compliance is essential for businesses in 2024 

Even after you’ve read this article, there’s a high likelihood that there are a lot of aspects that have changed in the meantime. Regulations change constantly, and even if you comply with the state of compliance regulations in 2024, the year after will change this.

Regardless of the size of your company, it’s advised that you or your team members keep up with the compliance landscape and ensure that you’re operating safely. Each of the methods mentioned in the article varies in complexity and importance. 

You can also start using services and platforms that manage compliance methods on your behalf. They can help you with understanding what steps you should take and whether you’re at risk. 

Starting with understanding GDPR and then Google Analytics are essential steps to a compliant business. Consent mode and all the complementary measures for compliance are important methods that will futureproof your business. 

About Writer

Veljko is a student of information technology who paired his passion for technology with his writing skills. He enjoys researching topics such as robotics and programming and cultivates his knowledge in philosophy, classical literature, and fitness. Veljko’s favorite writers are Borislav Pekić, Miloš Crnjanski, and Ernest Hemingway. 

Veljko Petrovic

Writer Veljko 

Top 10 Most Asked Questions on Google in 2023: Explained

Have you ever wondered about the queries people most frequently search for on Google? In the ever-evolving landscape of the internet, Google search trends provide a fascinating insight into the collective curiosity of users worldwide. In 2023, some questions took the internet by storm, and we’re here to explore the top 10 most asked questions on Google in 2023.

“What to Watch” – 9,140,000 searches

In an era of endless streaming options, it’s no surprise that “What to watch” is a popular query. With so many new shows and movies constantly being released, users are turning to Google to find their next binge-worthy content.

“Where’s My Refund” – 7,480,000 searches

While “Where’s My Refund” might seem like a seasonal query, it continues to be a recurring theme each year. This question primarily arises as taxpayers eagerly await their tax refunds. The IRS processing timeline triggers a surge in searches every year, making it a staple in the top queries list.

“How You Like That” – 6,120,000 searches

Music enthusiasts and K-pop fans played a significant role in making “How You Like That” one of the top queries on Google in 2023. This song by the popular South Korean girl group BLACKPINK generated massive interest and queries related to its lyrics, music video, and more.

“What Is My IP Address” – 4,090,000 searches

Internet users often find themselves wondering about their IP addresses for various reasons, including security and network troubleshooting. “What Is My IP Address” consistently ranks high in Google searches, indicating that people are vigilant about their online presence.

“How Many Ounces in a Cup” – 2,740,000 searches

Cooking and baking enthusiasts frequently rely on Google to help them convert measurements. “How Many Ounces in a Cup” reflects the ongoing interest in culinary queries as more people explore the joys of home cooking.

“What Time Is It” – 1,830,000 searches

A seemingly simple question, “What Time Is It,” suggests that users often turn to Google as a real-time information source. Whether it’s to check the time in different time zones or ensure they’re not running late, this query remains a constant.

“How I Met Your Mother” – 1,830,000 searches

The enduring popularity of TV shows like “How I Met Your Mother” ensures that people continue to search for information, plot summaries, and discussions related to their favourite series.

“How to Screenshot on Mac” – 1,830,000 searches

As technology evolves, so do the questions surrounding it. Apple users frequently seek guidance on how to perform various tasks on their devices, and “How to Screenshot on Mac” is a prime example.

“Where Am I” – 1,500,000 searches

“Where Am I” is a testament to the ubiquity of location-based services and the curiosity of users wanting to know their exact whereabouts. This query often relates to finding directions or tracking a device.

“How to Lose Weight Fast” – 1,500,000 searches

Health and fitness are perennial interests for many, and “How to Lose Weight Fast” reflects the ongoing pursuit of knowledge in this domain. People seek quick and effective ways to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Providing Value in the Age of Google

In the digital age, Google’s primary mission is to satisfy user needs. To achieve a top search position, content creators must focus on producing valuable, informative, and engaging material that answers users’ questions. Here are some tips for enhancing your SEO and content planning:

Address User Queries: Identify the questions users frequently ask about your products, services, or industry. Create content that provides comprehensive answers to these questions.

Explore “People Also Ask”: Use Google’s “People Also Ask” feature to uncover additional question-based long-tail keywords relevant to your content.

Engage on Online Forums: Participate in online forums and platforms where users discuss various topics. Look for recurring questions that capture users’ attention.

Leverage AnswerThePublic.com: This tool can provide insights into the most frequently asked questions related to your core keywords.

Incorporate Long-Tail Keywords: Include question-based long-tail keywords in your content, title tags, meta descriptions, and social media posts to improve your search engine ranking.

Conclusion

The top Google queries of 2023 reveal the ever-evolving landscape of user interests and questions. By understanding and addressing the queries that matter most to your audience, you can create content that not only impresses Google but also delivers value to your customers. In a world where information is just a search away, providing valuable answers is key to success in content creation and SEO. Start using these insights today to enhance your online presence and reach a wider audience in 2023.

What Is the Most Searched Thing on Google? We Explain Here

In the digital age, Google serves as the gateway to a vast world of information. People from all corners of the globe turn to this search engine giant to satisfy their curiosity, find answers to burning questions, and discover the latest trends. In January to March 2023, the world’s curiosity reached new heights, with “YouTube” emerging as the most searched term on Google according to global SEMrush data. However, the list of top searches doesn’t stop there; it includes intriguing queries that reflect our ever-evolving interests and concerns. In this article, we delve into the top 23 most Googled questions worldwide, exploring what piqued our collective curiosity during this period.

Understanding Search Volume

Before we dive into the fascinating world of top Google searches, it’s crucial to comprehend the concept of search volume. Search volume represents the average number of times users enter a specific search query on a search engine each month. The higher the search volume, the more popular a keyword is among users.

The data we present here covers the period from January through March 2023, providing a snapshot of the most sought-after information during these months. Keep in mind that search volumes can vary from month to month, and our rankings are based on the combined averages of these three months.

Now, let’s embark on a journey through the top 23 most Googled questions globally, shedding light on what kept the world’s curiosity buzzing.

Top 23 Most Googled Questions Globally:

  1. Where is my refund? (Search Volume: 15,500,000)
  2. How many ounces in a cup? (Search Volume: 8,600,000)
  3. How to calculate BMI? (Search Volume: 7,500,000)
  4. Is Rihanna pregnant? (Search Volume: 5,600,000)
  5. How late is the closest grocery store open? (Search Volume: 4,700,000)
  6. What is my IP? (Search Volume: 4,100,000)
  7. What is my IP address? (Search Volume: 3,100,000)
  8. How to calculate percentage? (Search Volume: 2,900,000)
  9. How many centimetres in an inch? (Search Volume: 2,600,000)
  10. How to delete Instagram account? (Search Volume: 2,200,000)
  11. When is the Mega Millions drawing? (Search Volume: 2,200,000)
  12. When is the Super Bowl? (Search Volume: 2,100,000)
  13. When is Easter? (Search Volume: 1,900,000)
  14. How to screenshot on Mac? (Search Volume: 1,800,000)
  15. What time is it? (Search Volume: 1,700,000)
  16. What time is the Super Bowl? (Search Volume: 1,700,000)
  17. How many weeks in a year? (Search Volume: 1,600,000)
  18. When is the full moon? (Search Volume: 1,200,000)
  19. What is normal blood pressure? (Search Volume: 1,200,000)
  20. Is Rihanna pregnant again? (Search Volume: 1,200,000)
  21. What are symptoms of ADHD? (Search Volume: 1,100,000)
  22. Where am I? (Search Volume: 1,100,000)
  23. How to solve a Rubik’s Cube? (Search Volume: 1,100,000)

Conclusion

In the ever-evolving digital landscape, Google remains our go-to source for answers, information, and insights. The top 23 most Googled questions from January to March 2023 offer a glimpse into our diverse interests and concerns, ranging from practical queries about measurements and conversions to our insatiable curiosity about celebrities and major events.

As we continue to navigate the vast online world, these searches provide a snapshot of our collective consciousness. They showcase our desire for knowledge, entertainment, and connection in an interconnected world where information is at our fingertips.

It’s essential to note that these rankings are subject to change as our interests and priorities evolve. Google’s role as a reflection of our digital society remains as dynamic as the world it serves.

So, the next time you have a burning question, don’t hesitate to join the millions who turn to Google to satisfy their curiosity and seek answers to life’s intriguing mysteries.

SEO: How to Get Your Written Articles to Perform Exceptionally on Google

In the digital age, where information is at our fingertips, having your written articles perform well on Google is crucial for any content creator, marketer, or business. Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) is the key to achieving this goal. It not only increases your visibility on search engines but also attracts organic traffic. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the essential strategies and techniques to ensure that your written content shines on Google.

Understanding the Basics of SEO

Before we dive into the strategies, let’s establish a foundation by understanding the basics of SEO. SEO revolves around optimising your website and its content to rank higher in search engine results pages (SERPs). Google, being the most popular search engine, serves as our primary focus.

Keyword Research

Keywords are the cornerstone of SEO. These are the phrases or words users type into search engines when looking for information. Effective keyword research involves identifying relevant and high-traffic keywords in your niche. Tools like Google Keyword Planner, SEMrush, or Ahrefs can be invaluable for this task.

Crafting SEO-Friendly Content

Once you have your keywords, it’s time to create content that aligns with your SEO goals.

High-Quality Content

Quality is paramount. Google values content that is informative, engaging, and valuable to the reader. Aim for well-researched, original, and insightful articles that cater to your target audience’s needs.

Keyword Optimisation

Integrate your chosen keywords naturally within your content. Avoid keyword stuffing, which can negatively impact your rankings. Instead, focus on using keywords strategically in your title, headings, meta description, and throughout the content.

Mobile Optimisation

With the increasing use of smartphones, it’s essential to ensure that your website and articles are mobile-friendly. Google prioritises mobile-optimised websites, so invest in responsive design.

Technical SEO

Technical SEO encompasses the backend aspects of your website that affect its performance on search engines.

Site Speed

Google values fast-loading websites. Optimise your images, use a content delivery network (CDN), and leverage browser caching to enhance your site’s speed.

XML Sitemap

A well-structured XML sitemap helps Google’s crawlers index your content efficiently. Ensure your sitemap is up to date and easily accessible.

Secure Website (HTTPS)

Google prefers secure websites. Ensure your site uses HTTPS to encrypt data and protect user information.

Link Building

Building a robust backlink profile is essential for SEO success.

High-Quality Backlinks

Quality trumps quantity when it comes to backlinks. Seek authoritative and relevant websites to link to your content. Guest posting and outreach are effective strategies for acquiring backlinks.

Internal Linking

Don’t forget to link internally within your content. It helps with navigation and spreads authority throughout your website.

User Experience and Engagement

Google assesses user experience and engagement metrics to determine the value of your content.

Mobile Responsiveness

Ensure your website looks and functions well on mobile devices. A responsive design is crucial for a seamless mobile experience.

Bounce Rate

Lowering your bounce rate is crucial. Engage your readers with compelling content, clear navigation, and calls to action.

Analysing and Adapting

SEO is an ongoing process. Regularly analyse your performance and adapt your strategies accordingly.

Google Analytics

Utilise Google Analytics to monitor your website’s performance, track user behaviour, and identify areas for improvement.

SEO Tools

Consider using SEO tools like Moz or SEMrush to gain insights into your rankings, track your competitors, and uncover new opportunities.

The Importance of Patience

SEO is not an overnight success story. It requires time, patience, and consistent efforts. Don’t be discouraged if you don’t see immediate results. Keep refining your strategies and adapting to changes in search engine algorithms.

Conclusion

Achieving high rankings on Google for your written articles is a journey that demands dedication and expertise in SEO. By understanding the fundamentals, crafting SEO-friendly content, optimising your website technically, building a strong backlink profile, and prioritising user experience, you’ll be well on your way to success.

Remember, SEO is an ever-evolving field, so staying updated with the latest trends and algorithm changes is essential. With perseverance and a commitment to excellence, your written articles can not only perform well on Google but also reach and engage both domestic and international audiences effectively.

Most Searched Things on Google in 2023 – How Has Global Search Behaviour Changed This Year?

In the ever-evolving landscape of the digital world, search engines have become an integral part of our daily lives. Google, being the titan of the search engine realm, holds the power to reflect the collective interests and curiosities of billions of users worldwide. As we delve into the year 2023, we harness the remarkable insights from Similarweb’s extensive keyword database to uncover the most searched things on Google, and how these trends are shaping global search behaviour.

YouTube Reigns Supreme

As of June 2023, ‘YouTube’ has once again claimed its throne as the most searched term on Google for the third consecutive year. The significance of this cannot be understated, given that Google itself owns YouTube. This achievement underscores the synergy between the search engine giant and the world’s most popular video-sharing platform, demonstrating the immense influence they have on the digital landscape.

Global Search Trends Unveiled

To provide a comprehensive view of the global search landscape, we’ve curated a list of the most searched terms on Google for the United States, the United Kingdom, and worldwide. Furthermore, we’ve gone the extra mile by revealing the websites that won the lion’s share of traffic for each search term, offering valuable insights into user preferences and digital trends.

Worldwide Search Trends

YouTube vs. Facebook: In a head-to-head battle, ‘YouTube’ emerges as the champion with a staggering 2 billion total searches, surpassing ‘Facebook’ with 1.6 billion searches. This speaks volumes about the enduring popularity of video content and the role it plays in shaping our online experiences.

ChatGPT Takes the World by Storm: In the realm of artificial intelligence, ChatGPT has made a remarkable leap from the 64th position to the 20th most searched term worldwide. This surge in interest highlights the growing fascination with AI-powered technologies and their potential impact on various aspects of our lives.

Sports Fever: Sports enthusiasts are fervently engaged in online searches, with the ‘NBA’ ranking as the most popular sports-related search at 11th place, boasting 615 million total searches. It’s closely followed by the ‘Premier League’ at 18th place and the ‘NFL’ at 27th place, demonstrating the global passion for sports and the insatiable appetite for sports-related information.

Entertainment in the Digital Age: A noteworthy finding reveals that 11% of the most searched terms on Google are related to ‘adult entertainment sites,’ with ‘Pornhub’ securing the third position on the list. This data sheds light on the enduring demand for adult content in the digital sphere.

Google’s Dominance: In a rather interesting twist, four of the top 10 Google searches lead to Google-owned sites, indicating the tech giant’s pervasive influence. ‘YouTube,’ ‘Google Translate’ (x2 searches), and ‘Gmail’ are among the top contenders. Moreover, Google’s suite of applications, including ‘Google Maps’ (19), ‘Google Docs’ (69), ‘Google Drive’ (81), and ‘Google Flights’ (90), have secured prominent positions in the top 100 searches.

Email Ecosystem: Email remains a pivotal part of our digital communication, with ‘Gmail’ narrowly making it to the top 10 with a staggering 700.7 million searches since January 2023. Other email providers like ‘hotmail’ (22nd) and ‘yahoo mail’ (28th) are also popular, with ‘yahoo’ itself lagging behind at the 34th spot. This data highlights the enduring relevance of email in our daily lives.

Social Media’s Impact: Social media giant ‘Facebook,’ now known as ‘Meta,’ has a strong presence in the top 20 searches, with ‘Facebook’ ranking second, and ‘Whatsapp Web’ and ‘Instagram’ claiming the 10th and 12th positions, respectively. This reaffirms the significance of social media platforms in our interconnected world.

E-commerce Titans: In the realm of e-commerce, ‘Amazon’ continues to dominate at the fifth position, reflecting its unrivalled presence in the online shopping landscape. ‘Ebay’ follows at 35th place, with ‘Shein’ at 49th place, showcasing the diverse range of online shopping destinations available to consumers.

Conclusion

In 2023, our digital lives continue to be shaped by the power of Google searches. ‘YouTube’ maintains its position as the most searched term, reaffirming its status as a digital giant. Meanwhile, AI technologies like ‘ChatGPT’ are garnering significant attention, reflecting our fascination with the possibilities of artificial intelligence.

The sports world, adult entertainment, and email services also remain prominent in our search habits, underscoring the diverse interests and needs of users. Google’s ecosystem, including its applications and email services, solidifies its influence, while ‘Meta’ continues to command a significant presence in the social media landscape.

As we continue to navigate the ever-evolving digital landscape, these search trends serve as a window into the collective interests, curiosities, and preferences of users worldwide. The year 2023 is a testament to the enduring relevance of search engines and their ability to reflect and shape our online experiences.

The Most Asked Questions on Google in the Past 10 Years

In an era where information is just a click away, Google has become our go-to source for answers to all our questions. Over the past decade, billions of people have turned to this search engine giant to satisfy their curiosity, solve problems, and learn about a wide range of topics. This article dives deep into the most asked questions on Google over the past 10 years, shedding light on what has captivated the collective curiosity of humanity.

Section 1: Technology and Gadgets

What Is the Latest iPhone Model?

Apple’s iPhone has consistently topped the list of the most searched tech-related questions. People eagerly await each new release to see the latest innovations and features.

How Do I Set up a Wi-Fi network at Home?

As the world becomes increasingly connected, setting up a reliable Wi-Fi network has become a common concern for many.

What Is the Difference Between 4G and 5G?

The transition from 4G to 5G networks has sparked curiosity about the technology behind these generations and their potential impact.

Section 2: Health and Wellness

How to Lose Weight Effectively?

Weight management and fitness are perennial concerns, and people continue to seek advice on achieving their ideal body.

What Are the Symptoms of COVID-19?

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on our lives, making it one of the most searched topics in recent years.

How to Reduce Stress and Anxiety?

Mental health awareness has grown, leading many to search for ways to alleviate stress and anxiety.

Section 3: Pop Culture and Entertainment

Who Won the Latest Season of [Popular Reality Show]?

Reality television has maintained its grip on our collective consciousness, with fans eager to know the outcomes of their favourite shows.

What Is the Plot of the Latest Marvel Movie?

Superhero movies have dominated the box office, and fans are always hungry for information about the latest releases.

Who Is the Most-followed Celebrity on Social Media?

Celebrity culture and social media have merged, creating a fascination with who’s on top in the virtual world.

Section 4: Travel and Exploration

What Are the Top Travel Destinations for [year]?

Travel enthusiasts are constantly seeking inspiration for their next adventure, and this question evolves with changing trends.

How to Book Cheap Flights?

Budget-conscious travellers often turn to Google for tips and tricks on scoring affordable flights.

What Are the Visa Requirements for [Country]?

As international travel becomes more accessible, understanding visa requirements has become crucial for globetrotters.

Section 5: Educational Pursuits

How to Learn [Popular Language]?

Language learning has seen a resurgence, driven by the desire to connect with diverse cultures and boost career opportunities.

What Are the Best Online Courses for [Specific Skill]?

The internet has democratised education, and people seek online courses to acquire new skills or enhance existing ones.

How to Write a Captivating Resume?

In an ever-competitive job market, crafting a compelling resume is essential, leading to a surge in searches for resume-writing tips.

Conclusion:

The most asked questions on Google in the past 10 years reflect the ever-changing interests and concerns of our society. From technology and health to pop culture and education, these queries paint a vivid picture of our collective curiosity. As we look ahead to the next decade, one thing is certain: Google will continue to be our trusted companion on the journey of knowledge and discovery.