Rising Chance of Global Recession in 2023

According to a thorough new study by the World Bank, as central banks around the world simultaneously raise interest rates in response to inflation, the world may be edging towards a global recession in 2023 and a string of financial crises in emerging market and developing economies that would harm them permanently.

According to the report, central banks have been rising interest rates this year with a degree of coherence not seen in the previous fifty years. To lower global inflation to pre-pandemic levels, however, the currently anticipated trajectory of interest rate increases and other policy interventions may not be sufficient. Investors anticipate central banks to boost global interest rates by more than 2 percentage points over their 2021 average through 2023, to about 4 percent.

Interest Rate Increases

The study indicates that if supply disruptions and labour market pressures don’t abate, those interest rate hikes could leave the global core inflation rate at roughly 5% in 2023, which would be nearly twice the five-year average prior to the pandemic. The report’s model suggests that central banks may need to increase interest rates by an extra 2 percentage points in order to reduce global inflation to a rate that is consistent with their aims. If financial market stress were to accompany this, global GDP growth would fall to 0.5 percent in 2023—a per-capita contraction of 0.4 percent that would technically qualify as a worldwide recession.

The analysis emphasises the highly complicated conditions that central banks are now fighting inflation in. A number of past global recession indicators are already sounding the alarm. Following a post-recession rebound, the world economy is currently experiencing its greatest decline since 1970. Compared to the period leading up to previous global recessions, the loss in worldwide consumer confidence has already been much more severe. The three largest economies in the world—the US, China, and the euro area—have all seen a significant slowdown. Given the situation, even a slight blow to the world economy over the course of the ensuing year might send it into a recession.

The report analyses the current trajectory of economic activity and proposes possibilities for 2022–2024 by drawing on lessons learned from previous global recessions.

Prior Global Recessions

By analysing the economic activity’s current trajectory and making suggestions for 2022–2024, the research builds on the knowledge gained from prior global recessions. In order to stimulate activity during slowdowns like the one we are presently going through, countercyclical policy is frequently necessary. The prospect of inflation and the limited fiscal headroom, however, are forcing policymakers in many countries to reduce policy support even as the global economy slows substantially.

The study concludes that central banks should continue their efforts to keep inflation under control since it is possible to do so without causing a worldwide recession. However, it will demand coordinated action from a range of policymakers.

This may serve to stabilise inflation expectations and lessen the amount of tightening required. Central banks in advanced economies should be aware of the consequences of monetary tightening on other countries. They should tighten macroprudential rules in emerging market and developing economies and increase foreign exchange reserves.

The effects of monetary policy on growth can be amplified as a result. Additionally, decision-makers should implement dependable medium-term economic plans and offer vulnerable households specific assistance.

To effectively combat inflation, additional economic decision-makers will need to take substantial action to increase global supply.

What Is a Recession? We Explain Here

A recession is what happens when there are two consecutive quarters of negative growth. Recessions generally occur when there is a widespread drop in spending.

If a recession develops into a depression its caused by a number of circumstances. Among those are the extent and quality of credit extended during the previous period of prosperity, the amount of speculation permitted, the ability of monetary and fiscal policy to reverse the downward trend, and the amount of excess productive capacity in existence.

In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction when there is a general decline in economic activity. The business cycle describes the way an economy alternates between periods of expansion and recessions.

As an economic expansion begins, the economy sees healthy, sustainable growth. Lenders make it easier and less expensive to borrow money, encouraging consumers and businesses to load up on debt. Irrational exuberance starts to overtake asset prices.

The average recession lasts 11 months.

With more people unable to pay their bills during a recession, lenders tighten standards for mortgages, car loans and other types of financing.

You need a higher credit score or a larger down payment to qualify for a loan that would be the case during more stable economic times.

A widely cited indicator of recessions maintains that a recession is likely underway when the three-month moving average of the unemployment rate rises by at least half a percentage point relative to its lowest point in the previous 12 months.

The fact that the Sahm indicator is 0, far below its 50 basis-point threshold, provides yet another indication that the economic expansion is ongoing.


A recession is a multifaceted economic event that affects virtually every aspect of society. Understanding its causes, effects, and coping strategies is crucial for individuals, businesses, and policymakers alike. By being proactive in addressing the challenges posed by recessions, we can pave the way for a more resilient and adaptable economy that is better equipped to handle the uncertainties of the future.

What Does The Evergrande Group Debt Crisis Mean?

In recent times, the global financial landscape has been shaken by the unfolding crisis surrounding the Evergrande Group, a Chinese conglomerate with interests spanning real estate, finance, and other sectors. This crisis has sparked concerns not only within China but across international markets. In this article, we will delve into the intricacies of the Evergrande Group debt crisis, exploring its root causes, potential implications, and the ripple effects it has sent through the global economy.

Understanding the Evergrande Group

The Evergrande Group, once hailed as a symbol of China’s booming real estate sector, is now grappling with a monumental debt crisis. Founded in 1996, the company quickly expanded its operations, becoming one of the largest property developers in China. With ambitions beyond real estate, Evergrande ventured into electric vehicles, healthcare, and other sectors, accumulating a vast empire.

Causes of the Debt Crisis

Several factors have contributed to Evergrande’s current financial quagmire:

Aggressive Expansion and Debt Accumulation: Evergrande’s rapid expansion into various sectors led to a significant accumulation of debt. The company borrowed heavily to fund its ambitious projects, resulting in a debt burden that became increasingly difficult to manage.

Real Estate Market Changes: The Chinese government’s efforts to curb property speculation and control housing prices impacted Evergrande’s core real estate business. Stricter regulations and increased scrutiny on property developers added to the company’s financial strain.

Diversification Challenges: Evergrande’s foray into sectors like electric vehicles and healthcare strained its resources and diverted attention from its core competencies. The company faced challenges in effectively managing these diverse ventures, leading to financial instability.

Cash Flow Constraints: Evergrande offered high-yield investment products that promised attractive returns. However, the company struggled to generate sufficient cash flow to meet its obligations, resulting in a liquidity crisis.

Implications for Evergrande and China

Domestic Impact: The Evergrande crisis could lead to layoffs, unpaid suppliers, and halted projects, causing a ripple effect in the Chinese economy. A potential real estate market downturn could affect homeowners and exacerbate economic challenges.

Financial System Stability: The sheer size of Evergrande’s debt – estimated at hundreds of billions of dollars – poses a systemic risk to China’s financial stability. Concerns have arisen about potential contagion to other financial institutions.

Government Response: To prevent a widespread financial crisis, the Chinese government faces the delicate task of managing Evergrande’s fallout. Authorities must strike a balance between ensuring stability and holding companies accountable for their financial decisions.

Global Ramifications

The Evergrande crisis extends its reach beyond China’s borders:

Global Markets Volatility: The uncertainty surrounding Evergrande has already triggered volatility in global financial markets. Investors are wary of the potential spillover effects, leading to fluctuations in stock markets and commodity prices.

Supply Chain Disruptions: Evergrande’s ventures into electric vehicles and other sectors have created global supply chain linkages. Disruptions in these ventures could impact industries reliant on these supply chains.

Investor Confidence: The Evergrande crisis prompts a reevaluation of corporate governance and risk management practices. Investors may become more cautious about investing in companies with high levels of debt and unclear business models.

Steps Toward Resolution

Debt Restructuring: Evergrande could engage in negotiations with creditors to restructure its debt, potentially converting some liabilities into equity or extending repayment timelines.

Asset Liquidation: Selling off non-core assets could help Evergrande generate much-needed cash to meet its obligations and stabilise its financial position.

Government Intervention: Chinese authorities might intervene by orchestrating a controlled resolution to prevent a disorderly collapse. This could involve a coordinated effort to manage the impact on creditors, homebuyers, and the broader economy.


The Evergrande Group’s debt crisis serves as a cautionary tale about the perils of unchecked expansion and excessive borrowing. Its implications stretch beyond China, unsettling global markets and supply chains. As the Chinese government and Evergrande’s leadership work to find a solution, the world watches closely to see how this crisis will unfold and what lessons can be learned from it. In a rapidly interconnected global economy, the fate of one company can reverberate far beyond its borders, underscoring the need for prudent financial practices and regulatory vigilance.

Private Markets Set To Grow Globally By 2025

Private markets has become an umbrella term to refer to assets that are not liquid, not traded on organised market exchanges and are spread across different segments such as private equity, real estate, private credit and infrastructure.

The new value creation playbook, examines prospects for four primarily illiquid asset classes of private equity, infrastructure, real estate and private credit across a range of scenarios for 2019-2025.

Private equity is equity capital invested in private companies.

Investors hope that by investing in private companies they can increase a company’s value and sell their stake at a later stage through a trade sale, buyout, a recapitalisation or through listing the company on public markets through an initial public offering.

Private debt funds typically target the ownership of credit issued by private companies that either seek more flexible financing terms or are neglected by banks due to the complexity of transactions.

Private equity investments represent the majority of investments in private markets.

They project significant growth for the value of private markets of $5.5tn, $4.9tn and $4.2tn depending on how global economic conditions respond to the disruption caused by COVID-19.

Investing directly into private companies is known as direct or co-investments where there is no middleman.

In this instance, it is important to have a deep knowledge of the sector of the company you are investing in. This allows the investor to be directly involved in the growth story of a company and realise returns on exit.

Even in the worst case scenario of a prolonged recession, the projections look ahead to growth of almost 50% up to 2025.

Global Top 100 Companies Bounce Back from 2020 Lows

Global equity markets have seen a strong bounce back from the low points seen in March 2020, but volatility remains elevated, according to a new quarterly update to the Global Top 100 companies by market capitalisation rankings, released today by PwC.

The report notes that, most immediately, a disappointing reporting season for H1 2020 earnings could cause a re-evaluation of recession risks and associated stock valuations.

Having decreased by 15% from December 2019 to March 2020, the market capitalisation of the Global Top 100 as at June 2020 was only 1% behind December 2019.

By comparison as at 30 June 2020 the MSCI World Index was 7% behind December 2019, having recovered most of the ground lost in the first quarter of 2020.

Regional analysis:

  • Global Top 100 companies from the US and China and its regions recovered first quarter losses in March to June 2020 – Europe and the rest of the world did not recover the lost ground.
  • Technology companies contributed to a 21% market capitalisation increase for US companies from March to June 2020.
  • The performance in China and its regions since December 2019 benefitted from a combination of being further advanced in recovering from the effects of COVID-19 and a strong Technology and eCommerce component.

Companies highlights:

  • Eighty seven of the Global Top 100 companies as at June 2020 saw an increase in market capitalisation from March to June 2020, compared with just ten from January to March 2020
  • 10 companies included in the Global Top 100 as at March 2020 have dropped out and did not qualify for the June 2020 list.

The world’s top 100 companies account for a massive $31.7 trillion in market cap, but that wealth is not distributed evenly.

Navigating Misconceptions: Great Britain’s Stable Economy Sparks Business Concerns

In recent times, discussions about Great Britain’s economy have been rife with concerns and speculations. Contrary to popular misconceptions, the country’s economy is not in freefall but has exhibited remarkable stability. However, this very stability has generated a unique set of worries within the business community. This article delves into the reasons behind Great Britain’s resilient economy, the concerns businesses are grappling with, and the steps being taken to address these concerns.

The Myth of Freefall

Media headlines often sensationalise economic matters, leading to a widespread belief that Great Britain’s economy is spiralling into decline. However, a closer examination of the data reveals a different story. The country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has demonstrated consistent growth over the past few years, and unemployment rates have remained relatively low. In fact, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) projected a growth rate of 2.7% for the upcoming year, highlighting the nation’s economic resilience.

Factors Fuelling Stability

Several factors contribute to Great Britain’s robust economic performance. A significant driver is its diverse and adaptable economy. With strengths ranging from finance and technology to creative industries and manufacturing, the country has managed to avoid being overly dependent on any single sector. This diversity has acted as a buffer against economic shocks, allowing for steadier growth.

Moreover, the nation’s strategic alliances and trade relationships play a pivotal role. The United Kingdom’s ability to strike favourable trade agreements post-Brexit has enabled it to maintain its global market access. This has not only supported its domestic industries but has also boosted investor confidence, which is crucial for sustaining economic stability.

Business Worries in a Stable Climate

Ironically, the very stability of Great Britain’s economy has sparked worries within the business community. One primary concern centres around complacency. When an economy is consistently stable, there’s a tendency for businesses to underestimate the need for innovation and adaptation. This can hinder long-term competitiveness and resilience, particularly in a rapidly changing global landscape.

Furthermore, currency strength, often a side effect of a stable economy, can impact export-oriented industries. A stronger currency can make domestically produced goods more expensive for foreign buyers, potentially leading to reduced demand and negatively affecting businesses reliant on international markets.

Navigating Business Concerns

To address these concerns, businesses are taking proactive measures. One key strategy involves a renewed focus on innovation. Industry leaders recognise that continuous improvement and the introduction of cutting-edge technologies are essential for maintaining an edge in the global marketplace. Collaborations between businesses, research institutions, and the government are fostering an environment conducive to innovation-driven growth.

Additionally, businesses are revisiting their export strategies. While a strong currency might pose challenges, it also presents an opportunity to emphasise quality and brand value. Rather than solely competing on price, businesses can differentiate themselves by offering superior products and experiences, thereby mitigating the impact of currency fluctuations.

Government Support and Policy Implications

The government plays a pivotal role in shaping the economic landscape, and its policies can significantly impact businesses. To address the concerns of businesses while capitalising on the stability of the economy, policymakers are implementing measures that encourage innovation and international trade.

Investments in research and development (R&D) are being incentivised through tax breaks and grants. This approach fosters an environment where businesses are more inclined to invest in creating new products and services, ultimately bolstering their competitiveness on a global scale.

Moreover, trade promotion initiatives are being introduced to support businesses in their export endeavours. By providing resources and guidance, the government aims to help businesses navigate the challenges posed by currency fluctuations and trade barriers.


Great Britain’s economy, contrary to popular belief, stands on a solid foundation of stability and growth. However, this very stability has given rise to unique concerns within the business community. By recognising the need for continuous innovation, adapting export strategies, and aligning with supportive government policies, businesses are working to ensure that the nation’s economy remains resilient, competitive, and well-prepared for the challenges and opportunities of the future. As misconceptions are debunked and realities embraced, a clearer and more nuanced understanding of Great Britain’s economic trajectory emerges.